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calcium

calcium https://tvdseo.com/nCalcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. As an alkaline earth metal, calcium is a reactive metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air. Its physical and chemical properties are most similar to its heavier homologues strontium and barium. It is the fifth most abundant element in Earth’s crust, and the third most abundant metal, after iron and aluminium. The most common calcium compound on Earth is calcium carbonate, found in limestone and the fossilised remnants of early sea life; gypsum, anhydrite, fluorite, and apatite are also sources of calcium. The name derives from Latin calx “lime”, which was obtained from heating limestone.
Some calcium compounds were known to the ancients, though their chemistry was unknown until the seventeenth century. Pure calcium was isolated in 1808 via electrolysis of its oxide by Humphry Davy, who named the element. Calcium compounds are widely used in many industries: in foods and pharmaceuticals for calcium supplementation, in the paper industry as bleaches, as components in cement and electrical insulators, and in the manufacture of soaps. On the other hand, the metal in pure form has few applications due to its high reactivity; still, in small quantities it is often used as an alloying component in steelmaking, and sometimes, as a calcium–lead alloy, in making automotive batteries.
Calcium is the most abundant metal and the fifth-most abundant element in the human body. As electrolytes, calcium ions play a vital role in the physiological and biochemical processes of organisms and cells: in signal transduction pathways where they act as a second messenger; in neurotransmitter release from neurons; in contraction of all muscle cell types; as cofactors in many enzymes; and in fertilization. Calcium ions outside cells are important for maintaining the potential difference across excitable cell membranes, protein synthesis, and bone formation.

== Characteristics ==

=== Classification ===
Calcium is a very ductile silvery metal (sometimes described as pale yellow) whose properties are very similar to the heavier elements in its group, strontium, barium, and radium. A calcium atom has twenty electrons, arranged in the electron configuration [Ar]4s2. Like the other elements placed in group 2 of the periodic table, calcium has two valence electrons in the outermost s-orbital, which are very easily lost in chemical reactions to form a dipositive ion with the stable electron configuration of a noble gas, in this case argon. Hence, calcium is almost always divalent in its compounds, which are usually ionic. Hypothetical univalent salts of calcium would be stable with respect to their elements, but not to disproportionation to the divalent salts and calcium metal, because the enthalpy of formation of MX2 is much higher than those of the hypothetical MX. This occurs because of the much greater lattice energy afforded by the more highly charged Ca2+ cation compared to the hypothetical Ca+ cation.Calcium, strontium, barium, and radium are always considered to be alkaline earth metals; the lighter beryllium and magnesium, also in group 2 of the periodic table, are often included as well. Nevertheless, beryllium and magnesium differ significantly from the other members of the group in their physical and chemical behaviour: they behave more like aluminium and zinc respectively and have some of the weaker metallic character of the post-transition metals, which is why the traditional definition of the term “alkaline earth metal” excludes them. This classification is mostly obsolete in English-language sources, but is still used in other countries such as Japan. As a result, comparisons with strontium and barium are more germane to calcium chemistry than comparisons with magnesium.

=== Physical ===
Calcium metal melts at 842 °C and boils at 1494 °C; these values are higher than those for magnesium and strontium, the neighbouring group 2 metals. It crystallises in the face-centered cubic arrangement like strontium; above 450 °C, it changes to an anisotropic hexagonal close-packed arrangement like magnesium. Its density of 1.55 g/cm3 is the lowest in its group. Calcium is harder than lead but can be cut with a knife with effort. While calcium is a poorer conductor of electricity than copper or aluminium by volume, it is a better conductor by mass than both due to its very low density. While calcium is infeasible as a conductor for most terrestrial applications as it reacts quickly with atmospheric oxygen, its use as such in space has been considered.

=== Chemical ===

The chemistry of calcium is that of a typical heavy alkaline earth metal. For example, calcium spontaneously reacts with water more quickly than magnesium and less quickly than strontium to produce calcium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. It also reacts with the oxygen and nitrogen in the air to form a mixture of calcium oxide and calcium nitride. When finely divided, it spontaneously burns in air to produce the nitride. In bulk, calcium is less reactive: it quickly forms a hydration coating in moist air, but below 30% relative humidity it may be stored indefinitely at room temperature.Besides the simple oxide CaO, the peroxide CaO2 can be made by direct oxidation of calcium metal under a high pressure of oxygen, and there is some evidence for a yellow superoxide Ca(O2)2. Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, is a strong base, though it is not as strong as the hydroxides of strontium, barium or the alkali metals. All four dihalides of calcium are known. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium sulfate (CaSO4) are particularly abundant minerals. Like strontium and barium, as well as the alkali metals and the divalent lanthanides europium and ytterbium, calcium metal dissolves directly in liquid ammonia to give a dark blue solution.Due to the large size of the Ca2+ ion, high coordination numbers are common, up to 24 in some intermetallic compounds such as CaZn13. Calcium is readily complexed by oxygen chelates such as EDTA and polyphosphates, which are useful in analytic chemistry and removing calcium ions from hard water. In the absence of steric hindrance, smaller group 2 cations tend to form stronger complexes, but when large polydentate macrocycles are involved the trend is reversed.Although calcium is in the same group as magnesium and organomagnesium compounds are very commonly used throughout chemistry, organocalcium compounds are not similarly widespread because they are more difficult to make and more reactive, although they have recently been investigated as possible catalysts. Organocalcium compounds tend to be more similar to organoytterbium compounds due to the similar ionic radii of Yb2+ (102 pm) and Ca2+ (100 pm). Most of these compounds can only be prepared at low temperatures; bulky ligands tend to favor stability. For example, calcium dicyclopentadienyl, Ca(C5H5)2, must be made by directly reacting calcium metal with mercurocene or cyclopentadiene itself; replacing the C5H5 ligand with the bulkier C5(CH3)5 ligand on the other hand increases the compound’s solubility, volatility, and kinetic stability.

=== Isotopes ===

Natural calcium is a mixture of five stable isotopes (40Ca, 42Ca, 43Ca, 44Ca, and 46Ca) and one isotope with a half-life so long that it can be considered stable for all practical purposes (48Ca, with a half-life of about 4.3 × 1019 years). Calcium is the first (lightest) element to have six naturally occurring isotopes.By far the most common isotope of calcium in nature is 40Ca, which makes up 96.941% of all natural calcium. It is produced in the silicon-burning process from fusion of alpha particles and is the heaviest stable nuclide with equal proton and neutron numbers; its occurrence is also supplemented slowly by the decay of primordial 40K. Adding another alpha particle leads to unstable 44Ti, which quickly decays via two successive electron captures to stable 44Ca; this makes up 2.806% of all natural calcium and is the second-most common isotope. The other four natural isotopes, 42Ca, 43Ca, 46Ca, and 48Ca, are significantly rarer, each comprising less than 1% of all natural calcium. The four lighter isotopes are mainly products of the oxygen-burning and silicon-burning processes, leaving the two heavier ones to be produced via neutron capture processes. 46Ca is mostly produced in a “hot” s-process, as its formation requires a rather high neutron flux to allow short-lived 45Ca to capture a neutron. 48Ca is produced by electron capture in the r-process in type Ia supernovae, where high neutron excess and low enough entropy ensures its survival.46Ca and 48Ca are the first “classically stable” nuclides with a six-neutron or eight-neutron excess respectively. Although extremely neutron-rich for such a light element, 48Ca is very stable because it is a doubly magic nucleus, having 20 protons and 28 neutrons arranged in closed shells. Its beta decay to 48Sc is very hindered because of the gross mismatch of nuclear spin: 48Ca has zero nuclear spin, being even–even, while 48Sc has spin 6+, so the decay is forbidden by the conservation of angular momentum. While two excited states of 48Sc are available for decay as well, they are also forbidden due to their high spins. As a result, when 48Ca does decay, it does so by double beta decay to 48Ti instead, being the lightest nuclide known to undergo double beta decay. The heavy isotope 46Ca can also theoretically undergo double beta decay to 46Ti as well, but this has never been observed; the lightest and most common isotope 40Ca is also doubly magic and could undergo double electron capture to 40Ar, but this has likewise never been observed. Calcium is the only element to have two primordial doubly magic isotopes. The experimental lower limits for the half-lives of 40Ca and 46Ca are 5.9 × 1021 years and 2.8 × 1015 years respectively.Apart from the practically stable 48Ca, the longest lived radioisotope of calcium is 41Ca. It decays by electron capture to stable 41K with a half-life of about a hundred thousand years. Its existence in the early Solar System as an extinct radionuclide has been inferred from excesses of 41K: traces of 41Ca also still exist today, as it is a cosmogenic nuclide, continuously reformed through neutron activation of natural 40Ca. Many other calcium radioisotopes are known, ranging from 35Ca to 60Ca. They are all much shorter-lived than 41Ca, the most stable among them being 45Ca (half-life 163 days) and 47Ca (half-life 4.54 days). The isotopes lighter than 42Ca usually undergo beta plus decay to isotopes of potassium, and those heavier than 44Ca usually undergo beta minus decay to isotopes of scandium, although near the nuclear drip lines, proton emission and neutron emission begin to be significant decay modes as well.Like other elements, a variety of processes alter the relative abundance of calcium isotopes. The best studied of these processes is the mass-dependent fractionation of calcium isotopes that accompanies the precipitation of calcium minerals such as calcite, aragonite and apatite from solution. Lighter isotopes are preferentially incorporated into these minerals, leaving the surrounding solution enriched in heavier isotopes at a magnitude of roughly 0.025% per atomic mass unit (amu) at room temperature. Mass-dependent differences in calcium isotope composition are conventionally expressed by the ratio of two isotopes (usually 44Ca/40Ca) in a sample compared to the same ratio in a standard reference material. 44Ca/40Ca varies by about 1% among common earth materials.

== History ==

Calcium compounds were known for millennia, although their chemical makeup was not understood until the 17th century. Lime as a building material and as plaster for statues was used as far back as around 7000 BC. The first dated lime kiln dates back to 2500 BC and was found in Khafajah, Mesopotamia. At about the same time, dehydrated gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) was being used in the Great Pyramid of Giza; this material would later be used for the plaster in the tomb of Tutankhamun. The ancient Romans instead used lime mortars made by heating limestone (CaCO3); the name “calcium” itself derives from the Latin word calx “lime”. Vitruvius noted that the lime that resulted was lighter than the original limestone, attributing this to the boiling of the water; in 1755, Joseph Black proved that this was due to the loss of carbon dioxide, which as a gas had not been recognised by the ancient Romans.
In 1787, Antoine Lavoisier suspected that lime might be an oxide of a fundamental chemical element. In his table of the elements, Lavoisier listed five “salifiable earths” (i.e., ores that could be made to react with acids to produce salts (salis = salt, in Latin): chaux (calcium oxide), magnésie (magnesia, magnesium oxide), baryte (barium sulfate), alumine (alumina, aluminium oxide), and silice (silica, silicon dioxide)). About these “elements”, Lavoisier speculated: We are probably only acquainted as yet with a part of the metallic substances existing in nature, as all those which have a stronger affinity to oxygen than carbon possesses, are incapable, hitherto, of being reduced to a metallic state, and consequently, being only presented to our observation under the form of oxyds, are confounded with earths. It is extremely probable that barytes, which we have just now arranged with earths, is in this situation; for in many experiments it exhibits properties nearly approaching to those of metallic bodies. It is even possible that all the substances we call earths may be only metallic oxyds, irreducible by any hitherto known process.
Calcium, along with its congeners magnesium, strontium, and barium, was first isolated by Humphry Davy in 1808. Following the work of Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Magnus Martin af Pontin on electrolysis, Davy isolated calcium and magnesium by putting a mixture of the respective metal oxides with mercury(II) oxide on a platinum plate which was used as the anode, the cathode being a platinum wire partially submerged into mercury. Electrolysis then gave calcium–mercury and magnesium–mercury amalgams, and distilling off the mercury gave the metal. However, pure calcium cannot be prepared in bulk by this method and a workable commercial process for its production was not found until over a century later.

== Occurrence and production ==

At 3%, calcium is the fifth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, and the third most abundant metal behind aluminium and iron. It is also the fourth most abundant element in the lunar highlands. Sedimentary calcium carbonate deposits pervade the Earth’s surface as fossilized remains of past marine life; they occur in two forms, the rhombohedral calcite (more common) and the orthorhombic aragonite (forming in more temperate seas). Minerals of the first type include limestone, dolomite, marble, chalk, and iceland spar; aragonite beds make up the Bahamas, the Florida Keys, and the Red Sea basins. Corals, sea shells, and pearls are mostly made up of calcium carbonate. Among the other important minerals of calcium are gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), anhydrite (CaSO4), fluorite (CaF2), and apatite ([Ca5(PO4)3F]).The major producers of calcium are China (about 10000 to 12000 tonnes per year), Russia (about 6000 to 8000 tonnes per year), and the United States (about 2000 to 4000 tonnes per year). Canada and France are also among the minor producers. In 2005, about 24000 tonnes of calcium were produced; about half of the world’s extracted calcium is used by the United States, with about 80% of the output used each year. In Russia and China, Davy’s method of electrolysis is still used, but is instead applied to molten calcium chloride. Since calcium is less reactive than strontium or barium, the oxide–nitride coating that results in air is stable and lathe machining and other standard metallurgical techniques are suitable for calcium. In the United States and Canada, calcium is instead produced by reducing lime with aluminium at high temperatures.

=== Geochemical cycling ===

Calcium cycling provides a link between tectonics, climate, and the carbon cycle. In the simplest terms, uplift of mountains exposes calcium-bearing rocks to chemical weathering and releases Ca2+ into surface water. These ions are transported to the ocean where they react with dissolved CO2 to form limestone (CaCO3), which in turn settles to the sea floor where it is incorporated into new rocks. Dissolved CO2, along with carbonate and bicarbonate ions, are termed “dissolved inorganic carbon” (DIC).The actual reaction is more complicated and involves the bicarbonate ion (HCO−3) that forms when CO2 reacts with water at seawater pH:

Ca2+ + 2HCO−3 → CaCO3(s) + CO2 + H2OAt seawater pH, most of the CO2 is immediately converted back into HCO−3. The reaction results in a net transport of one molecule of CO2 from the ocean/atmosphere into the lithosphere. The result is that each Ca2+ ion released by chemical weathering ultimately removes one CO2 molecule from the surficial system (atmosphere, ocean, soils and living organisms), storing it in carbonate rocks where it is likely to stay for hundreds of millions of years. The weathering of calcium from rocks thus scrubs CO2 from the ocean and atmosphere, exerting a strong long-term effect on climate.

== Uses ==

The largest use of metallic calcium is in steelmaking, due to its strong chemical affinity for oxygen and sulfur. Its oxides and sulfides, once formed, give liquid lime aluminate and sulfide inclusions in steel which float out; on treatment, these inclusions disperse throughout the steel and became small and spherical, improving castability, cleanliness and general mechanical properties. Calcium is also used in maintenance-free automotive batteries, in which the use of 0.1% calcium–lead alloys instead of the usual antimony–lead alloys leads to lower water loss and lower self-discharging. Due to the risk of expansion and cracking, aluminium is sometimes also incorporated into these alloys. These lead–calcium alloys are also used in casting, replacing lead–antimony alloys. Calcium is also used to strengthen aluminium alloys used for bearings, for the control of graphitic carbon in cast iron, and to remove bismuth impurities from lead. Calcium metal is found in some drain cleaners, where it functions to generate heat and calcium hydroxide that saponifies the fats and liquefies the proteins (for example, those in hair) that block drains. Besides metallurgy, the reactivity of calcium is exploited to remove nitrogen from high-purity argon gas and as a getter for oxygen and nitrogen. It is also used as a reducing agent in the production of chromium, zirconium, thorium, and uranium. It can also be used to store hydrogen gas, as it reacts with hydrogen to form solid calcium hydride, from which the hydrogen can easily be re-extracted.Calcium isotope fractionation during mineral formation has led to several applications of calcium isotopes. In particular, the 1997 observation by Skulan and DePaolo that calcium minerals are isotopically lighter than the solutions from which the minerals precipitate is the basis of analogous applications in medicine and in paleooceanography. In animals with skeletons mineralized with calcium, the calcium isotopic composition of soft tissues reflects the relative rate of formation and dissolution of skeletal mineral. In humans, changes in the calcium isotopic composition of urine have been shown to be related to changes in bone mineral balance. When the rate of bone formation exceeds the rate of bone resorption, the 44Ca/40Ca ratio in soft tissue rises and vice versa. Because of this relationship, calcium isotopic measurements of urine or blood may be useful in the early detection of metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis. A similar system exists in seawater, where 44Ca/40Ca tends to rise when the rate of removal of Ca2+ by mineral precipitation exceeds the input of new calcium into the ocean. In 1997, Skulan and DePaolo presented the first evidence of change in seawater 44Ca/40Ca over geologic time, along with a theoretical explanation of these changes. More recent papers have confirmed this observation, demonstrating that seawater Ca2+ concentration is not constant, and that the ocean is never in a “steady state” with respect to calcium input and output. This has important climatological implications, as the marine calcium cycle is closely tied to the carbon cycle.Many calcium compounds are used in food, as pharmaceuticals, and in medicine, among others. For example, calcium and phosphorus are supplemented in foods through the addition of calcium lactate, calcium diphosphate, and tricalcium phosphate. The last is also used as a polishing agent in toothpaste and in antacids. Calcium lactobionate is a white powder that is used as a suspending agent for pharmaceuticals. In baking, calcium monophosphate is used as a leavening agent. Calcium sulfite is used as a bleach in papermaking and as a disinfectant, calcium silicate is used as a reinforcing agent in rubber, and calcium acetate is a component of liming rosin and is used to make metallic soaps and synthetic resins.Calcium is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines.

== Food sources ==
Foods rich in calcium include dairy products, such as yogurt and cheese, sardines, salmon, soy products, kale, and fortified breakfast cereals.Because of concerns for long-term adverse side effects, including calcification of arteries and kidney stones, both the U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) set Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) for combined dietary and supplemental calcium. From the IOM, people of ages 9–18 years are not to exceed 3 g/day combined intake; for ages 19–50, not to exceed 2.5 g/day; for ages 51 and older, not to exceed 2 g/day. EFSA set the UL for all adults at 2.5 g/day, but decided the information for children and adolescents was not sufficient to determine ULs.

== Biological and pathological role ==

=== Function ===
Calcium is an essential element needed in large quantities. The Ca2+ ion acts as an electrolyte and is vital to the health of the muscular, circulatory, and digestive systems; is indispensable to the building of bone; and supports synthesis and function of blood cells. For example, it regulates the contraction of muscles, nerve conduction, and the clotting of blood. As a result, intra- and extracellular calcium levels are tightly regulated by the body. Calcium can play this role because the Ca2+ ion forms stable coordination complexes with many organic compounds, especially proteins; it also forms compounds with a wide range of solubilities, enabling the formation of the skeleton.

=== Binding ===
Calcium ions may be complexed by proteins through binding the carboxyl groups of glutamic acid or aspartic acid residues; through interacting with phosphorylated serine, tyrosine, or threonine residues; or by being chelated by γ-carboxylated amino acid residues. Trypsin, a digestive enzyme, uses the first method; osteocalcin, a bone matrix protein, uses the third. Some other bone matrix proteins such as osteopontin and bone sialoprotein use both the first and the second. Direct activation of enzymes by binding calcium is common; some other enzymes are activated by noncovalent association with direct calcium-binding enzymes. Calcium also binds to the phospholipid layer of the cell membrane, anchoring proteins associated with the cell surface.

=== Solubility ===
As an example of the wide range of solubility of calcium compounds, monocalcium phosphate is very soluble in water, 85% of extracellular calcium is as dicalcium phosphate with a solubility of 2.0 mM and the hydroxyapatite of bones in an organic matrix is tricalcium phosphate at 100 μM.

=== Nutrition ===
Calcium is a common constituent of multivitamin dietary supplements, but the composition of calcium complexes in supplements may affect its bioavailability which varies by solubility of the salt involved: calcium citrate, malate, and lactate are highly bioavailable, while the oxalate is less. Other calcium preparations include calcium carbonate, calcium citrate malate, and calcium gluconate. The intestine absorbs about one-third of calcium eaten as the free ion, and plasma calcium level is then regulated by the kidneys.

=== Hormonal regulation of bone formation and serum levels ===
Parathyroid hormone and vitamin D promote the formation of bone by allowing and enhancing the deposition of calcium ions there, allowing rapid bone turnover without affecting bone mass or mineral content. When plasma calcium levels fall, cell surface receptors are activated and the secretion of parathyroid hormone occurs; it then proceeds to stimulate the entry of calcium into the plasma pool by taking it from targeted kidney, gut, and bone cells, with the bone-forming action of parathyroid hormone being antagonised by calcitonin, whose secretion increases with increasing plasma calcium levels.

=== Abnormal serum levels ===
Excess intake of calcium may cause hypercalcemia. However, because calcium is absorbed rather inefficiently by the intestines, high serum calcium is more likely caused by excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) or possibly by excessive intake of vitamin D, both which facilitate calcium absorption. All these conditions result in excess calcium salts being deposited in the heart, blood vessels, or kidneys. Symptoms include anorexia, nausea, vomiting, memory loss, confusion, muscle weakness, increased urination, dehydration, and metabolic bone disease. Chronic hypercalcaemia typically leads to calcification of soft tissue and its serious consequences: for example, calcification can cause loss of elasticity of vascular walls and disruption of laminar blood flow—and thence to plaque rupture and thrombosis. Conversely, inadequate calcium or vitamin D intakes may result in hypocalcemia, often caused also by inadequate secretion of parathyroid hormone or defective PTH receptors in cells. Symptoms include neuromuscular excitability, which potentially causes tetany and disruption of conductivity in cardiac tissue.

=== Kidney stones ===

=== Bone disease ===
As calcium is required for bone development, many bone diseases can be traced to the organic matrix or the hydroxyapatite in molecular structure or organization of bone. Osteoporosis is a reduction in mineral content of bone per unit volume, and can be treated by supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, and bisphosphonates. Inadequate amounts of calcium, vitamin D, or phosphates can lead to softening of bones, called osteomalacia.

== Safety ==

=== Metallic calcium ===
Because calcium reacts exothermically with water and acids, calcium metal coming into contact with bodily moisture results in severe corrosive irritation. When swallowed, calcium metal has the same effect on the mouth, oesophagus, and stomach, and can be fatal. However, long-term exposure is not known to have distinct adverse effects.

== See also ==

== References ==

== Bibliography ==
Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.
Hluchan, Stephen E.; Pomerantz, Kenneth. “Calcium and Calcium Alloys”. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a04_515.pub2.
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san antonio

san antonio https://tvdseo.com/n
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quantico

quantico https://tvdseo.com/nQuantico may refer to:

Virginia institutions:
Quantico, FBI Academy of U.S. national law-enforcement agency
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windows 7

windows 7 https://tvdseo.com/nWindows 7 is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft and released as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released to manufacturing on July 22, 2009, and became generally available on October 22, 2009. It is the successor to Windows Vista, released nearly three years earlier, and it was Microsoft’s operating system for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs and media center PCs until it was succeeded by Windows 8 on October 26, 2012. Windows 7’s server counterpart, Windows Server 2008 R2, was released at the same time. The last supported version of Windows based on this operating system was released on July 1, 2011, entitled Windows Embedded POSReady 7. On January 12, 2016 Microsoft ended support for Internet Explorer versions prior to Internet Explorer 11 on Windows 7. Extended support ended on January 14, 2020, over ten years after the release of Windows 7, after which the operating system ceased receiving further support or security updates (with exceptional security updates being made e.g. in 2019, to address potential ransomware threats, like BlueKeep) to most users.Windows 7 was primarily intended to be an incremental upgrade to Microsoft Windows, addressing Windows Vista’s poor critical reception while maintaining hardware and software compatibility. Windows 7 continued improvements on Windows Aero (the user interface introduced in Windows Vista) with the addition of a redesigned taskbar that allows applications to be “pinned” to it, and new window management features. Other new features were added to the operating system, including libraries, the new file sharing system HomeGroup, and support for multitouch input. A new “Action Center” interface was also added to provide an overview of system security and maintenance information, and tweaks were made to the User Account Control system to make it less intrusive. Windows 7 also shipped with updated versions of several stock applications, including Internet Explorer 8, Windows Media Player, and Windows Media Center.
Unlike Vista, Windows 7 received critical acclaim, with critics considering the operating system to be a major improvement over its predecessor due to its increased performance, its more intuitive interface (with particular praise devoted to the new taskbar), fewer User Account Control popups, and other improvements made across the platform. Windows 7 was a major success for Microsoft; even prior to its official release, pre-order sales for the operating system on the online retailer Amazon.com had surpassed previous records. In just six months, over 100 million copies had been sold worldwide, increasing to over 630 million licenses by July 2012. As of November 2020, 16.8% of traditional PCs running Windows are running Windows 7 (and thus 6% of all devices across platforms). It still has the majority market share in Turkmenistan and remains popular in China and Venezuela.

== Development history ==
Originally, a version of Windows codenamed “Blackcomb” was planned as the successor to Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 in 2000. Major features were planned for Blackcomb, including an emphasis on searching and querying data and an advanced storage system named WinFS to enable such scenarios. However, an interim, minor release, codenamed “Longhorn,” was announced for 2003, delaying the development of Blackcomb. By the middle of 2003, however, Longhorn had acquired some of the features originally intended for Blackcomb. After three major malware outbreaks—the Blaster, Nachi, and Sobig worms—exploited flaws in Windows operating systems within a short time period in August 2003, Microsoft changed its development priorities, putting some of Longhorn’s major development work on hold while developing new service packs for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. Development of Longhorn (Windows Vista) was also restarted, and thus delayed, in August 2004. A number of features were cut from Longhorn. Blackcomb was renamed Vienna in early 2006.When released, Windows Vista was criticized for its long development time, performance issues, spotty compatibility with existing hardware and software on launch, changes affecting the compatibility of certain PC games, and unclear assurances by Microsoft that certain computers shipping with XP prior to launch would be “Vista Capable” (which led to a class action lawsuit), among other critiques. As such, adoption of Vista in comparison to XP remained somewhat low. In July 2007, six months following the public release of Vista, it was reported that the next version of Windows would then be codenamed Windows 7, with plans for a final release within three years. Bill Gates, in an interview with Newsweek, suggested that Windows 7 would be more “user-centric”. Gates later said that Windows 7 would also focus on performance improvements. Steven Sinofsky later expanded on this point, explaining in the Engineering Windows 7 blog that the company was using a variety of new tracing tools to measure the performance of many areas of the operating system on an ongoing basis, to help locate inefficient code paths and to help prevent performance regressions. Senior Vice President Bill Veghte stated that Windows Vista users migrating to Windows 7 would not find the kind of device compatibility issues they encountered migrating from Windows XP. An estimated 1,000 developers worked on Windows 7. These were broadly divided into “core operating system” and “Windows client experience”, in turn organized into 25 teams of around 40 developers on average.In October 2008, it was announced that Windows 7 would also be the official name of the operating system. There has been some confusion over naming the product Windows 7, while versioning it as 6.1 to indicate its similar build to Vista and increase compatibility with applications that only check major version numbers, similar to Windows 2000 and Windows XP both having 5.x version numbers. The first external release to select Microsoft partners came in January 2008 with Milestone 1, build 6519. Speaking about Windows 7 on October 16, 2008, Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer confirmed compatibility between Windows Vista and Windows 7, indicating that Windows 7 would be a refined version of Windows Vista.At PDC 2008, Microsoft demonstrated Windows 7 with its reworked taskbar. On December 27, 2008, the Windows 7 Beta was leaked onto the Internet via BitTorrent. According to a performance test by ZDNet, Windows 7 Beta beat both Windows XP and Vista in several key areas, including boot and shutdown time and working with files, such as loading documents. Other areas did not beat XP, including PC Pro benchmarks for typical office activities and video editing, which remain identical to Vista and slower than XP. On January 7, 2009, the x64 version of the Windows 7 Beta (build 7000) was leaked onto the web, with some torrents being infected with a trojan. At CES 2009, Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer announced the Windows 7 Beta, build 7000, had been made available for download to MSDN and TechNet subscribers in the format of an ISO image. The stock wallpaper of the beta version contained a digital image of the Betta fish.The release candidate, build 7100, became available for MSDN and TechNet subscribers, and Connect Program participants on April 30, 2009. On May 5, 2009, it became available to the general public, although it had also been leaked onto the Internet via BitTorrent. The release candidate was available in five languages and expired on June 1, 2010, with shutdowns every two hours starting March 1, 2010. Microsoft stated that Windows 7 would be released to the general public on October 22, 2009, about less than three years after the launch of its predecessor. Microsoft released Windows 7 to MSDN and Technet subscribers on August 6, 2009. Microsoft announced that Windows 7, along with Windows Server 2008 R2, was released to manufacturing in the United States and Canada on July 22, 2009. Windows 7 RTM is build 7600.16385.090713-1255, which was compiled on July 13, 2009, and was declared the final RTM build after passing all Microsoft’s tests internally.

== Features ==

=== New and changed ===

Among Windows 7’s new features are advances in touch and handwriting recognition, support for virtual hard disks, improved performance on multi-core processors, improved boot performance, DirectAccess, and kernel improvements. Windows 7 adds support for systems using multiple heterogeneous graphics cards from different vendors (Heterogeneous Multi-adapter), a new version of Windows Media Center, a Gadget for Windows Media Center, improved media features, XPS Essentials Pack and Windows PowerShell being included, and a redesigned Calculator with multiline capabilities including Programmer and Statistics modes along with unit conversion for length, weight, temperature, and several others. Many new items have been added to the Control Panel, including ClearType Text Tuner Display Color Calibration Wizard, Gadgets, Recovery, Troubleshooting, Workspaces Center, Location and Other Sensors, Credential Manager, Biometric Devices, System Icons, and Display. Windows Security Center has been renamed to Windows Action Center (Windows Health Center and Windows Solution Center in earlier builds), which encompasses both security and maintenance of the computer. ReadyBoost on 32-bit editions now supports up to 256 gigabytes of extra allocation. Windows 7 also supports images in RAW image format through the addition of Windows Imaging Component-enabled image decoders, which enables raw image thumbnails, previewing and metadata display in Windows Explorer, plus full-size viewing and slideshows in Windows Photo Viewer and Windows Media Center. Windows 7 also has a native TFTP client with the ability to transfer files to or from a TFTP server.

The taskbar has seen the biggest visual changes, where the old Quick Launch toolbar has been replaced with the ability to pin applications to taskbar. Buttons for pinned applications are integrated with the task buttons. These buttons also enable Jump Lists to allow easy access to common tasks. The revamped taskbar also allows the reordering of taskbar buttons. To the far right of the system clock is a small rectangular button that serves as the Show desktop icon. By default, hovering over this button makes all visible windows transparent for a quick look at the desktop. In touch-enabled displays such as touch screens, tablet PCs, etc., this button is slightly (8 pixels) wider in order to accommodate being pressed by a finger. Clicking this button minimizes all windows, and clicking it a second time restores them.
Window management in Windows 7 has several new features: Aero Snap maximizes a window when it is dragged to the top, left, or right of the screen. Dragging windows to the left or right edges of the screen allows users to snap software windows to either side of the screen, such that the windows take up half the screen. When a user moves windows that were snapped or maximized using Snap, the system restores their previous state. Snap functions can also be triggered with keyboard shortcuts. Aero Shake hides all inactive windows when the active window’s title bar is dragged back and forth rapidly.

Windows 7 includes 13 additional sound schemes, titled Afternoon, Calligraphy, Characters, Cityscape, Delta, Festival, Garden, Heritage, Landscape, Quirky, Raga, Savanna, and Sonata. Internet Spades, Internet Backgammon and Internet Checkers, which were removed from Windows Vista, were restored in Windows 7. Users are able to disable or customize many more Windows components than was possible in Windows Vista. New additions to this list of components include Internet Explorer 8, Windows Media Player 12, Windows Media Center, Windows Search, and Windows Gadget Platform. A new version of Microsoft Virtual PC, newly renamed as Windows Virtual PC was made available for Windows 7 Professional, Enterprise, and Ultimate editions. It allows multiple Windows environments, including Windows XP Mode, to run on the same machine. Windows XP Mode runs Windows XP in a virtual machine, and displays applications within separate windows on the Windows 7 desktop. Furthermore, Windows 7 supports the mounting of a virtual hard disk (VHD) as a normal data storage, and the bootloader delivered with Windows 7 can boot the Windows system from a VHD; however, this ability is only available in the Enterprise and Ultimate editions. The Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) of Windows 7 is also enhanced to support real-time multimedia application including video playback and 3D games, thus allowing use of DirectX 10 in remote desktop environments. The three application limit, previously present in the Windows Vista and Windows XP Starter Editions, has been removed from Windows 7. All editions include some new and improved features, such as Windows Search, Security features, and some features new to Windows 7, that originated within Vista. Optional BitLocker Drive Encryption is included with Windows 7 Ultimate and Enterprise. Windows Defender is included; Microsoft Security Essentials antivirus software is a free download. All editions include Shadow Copy, which—every day or so—System Restore uses to take an automatic “previous version” snapshot of user files that have changed. Backup and restore have also been improved, and the Windows Recovery Environment—installed by default—replaces the optional Recovery Console of Windows XP.A new system known as “Libraries” was added for file management; users can aggregate files from multiple folders into a “Library.” By default, libraries for categories such as Documents, Pictures, Music, and Video are created, consisting of the user’s personal folder and the Public folder for each. The system is also used as part of a new home networking system known as HomeGroup; devices are added to the network with a password, and files and folders can be shared with all other devices in the HomeGroup, or with specific users. The default libraries, along with printers, are shared by default, but the personal folder is set to read-only access by other users, and the Public folder can be accessed by anyone.Windows 7 includes improved globalization support through a new Extended Linguistic Services API to provide multilingual support (particularly in Ultimate and Enterprise editions). Microsoft also implemented better support for solid-state drives, including the new TRIM command, and Windows 7 is able to identify a solid-state drive uniquely. Native support for USB 3.0 is not included due to delays in the finalization of the standard. At WinHEC 2008 Microsoft announced that color depths of 30-bit and 48-bit would be supported in Windows 7 along with the wide color gamut scRGB (which for HDMI 1.3 can be converted and output as xvYCC). The video modes supported in Windows 7 are 16-bit sRGB, 24-bit sRGB, 30-bit sRGB, 30-bit with extended color gamut sRGB, and 48-bit scRGB.For developers, Windows 7 includes a new networking API with support for building SOAP-based web services in native code (as opposed to .NET-based WCF web services), new features to simplify development of installation packages and shorten application install times. Windows 7, by default, generates fewer User Account Control (UAC) prompts because it allows digitally signed Windows components to gain elevated privileges without a prompt. Additionally, users can now adjust the level at which UAC operates using a sliding scale.

=== Removed ===

Certain capabilities and programs that were a part of Windows Vista are no longer present or have been changed, resulting in the removal of certain functionalities; these include the classic Start Menu user interface, some taskbar features, Windows Explorer features, Windows Media Player features, Windows Ultimate Extras, Search button, and InkBall. Four applications bundled with Windows Vista—Windows Photo Gallery, Windows Movie Maker, Windows Calendar and Windows Mail—are not included with Windows 7 and were replaced by Windows Live-branded versions as part of the Windows Live Essentials suite.

== Editions ==

Windows 7 is available in six different editions, of which the Home Premium, Professional, and Ultimate were available at retail in most countries, and as pre-loaded software on most new computers. Home Premium and Professional were aimed at home users and small businesses respectively, while Ultimate was aimed at enthusiasts. Each edition of Windows 7 includes all of the capabilities and features of the edition below it, and adds additional features oriented towards their market segments; for example, Professional adds additional networking and security features such as Encrypting File System and the ability to join a domain. Ultimate contained a superset of the features from Home Premium and Professional, along with other advanced features oriented towards power users, such as BitLocker drive encryption; unlike Windows Vista, there were no “Ultimate Extras” add-ons created for Windows 7 Ultimate. Retail copies were available in “upgrade” and higher-cost “full” version licenses; “upgrade” licenses require an existing version of Windows to install, while “full” licenses can be installed on computers with no existing operating system.The remaining three editions were not available at retail, of which two were available exclusively through OEM channels as pre-loaded software. The Starter edition is a stripped-down version of Windows 7 meant for low-cost devices such as netbooks. In comparison to Home Premium, Starter has reduced multimedia functionality, does not allow users to change their desktop wallpaper or theme, disables the “Aero Glass” theme, does not have support for multiple monitors, and can only address 2GB of RAM. Home Basic was sold only in emerging markets, and was positioned in between Home Premium and Starter. The highest edition, Enterprise, is functionally similar to Ultimate, but is only sold through volume licensing via Microsoft’s Software Assurance program.All editions aside from Starter support both IA-32 and x86-64 architectures, Starter only supports 32-bit systems. Retail copies of Windows 7 are distributed on two DVDs: one for the IA-32 version and the other for x86-64. OEM copies include one DVD, depending on the processor architecture licensed. The installation media for consumer versions of Windows 7 are identical, the product key and corresponding license determines the edition that is installed. The Windows Anytime Upgrade service can be used to purchase an upgrade that unlocks the functionality of a higher edition, such as going from Starter to Home Premium, and Home Premium to Ultimate. Most copies of Windows 7 only contained one license; in certain markets, a “Family Pack” version of Windows 7 Home Premium was also released for a limited time, which allowed upgrades on up to three computers. In certain regions, copies of Windows 7 were only sold in, and could only be activated in a designated region.

=== Support lifecycle ===
Support for Windows 7 without Service Pack 1 ended on April 9, 2013, requiring users to update in order to continue receiving updates and support after 3 years, 8 months, and 18 days. Microsoft ended the sale of new retail copies of Windows 7 in October 2014, and the sale of new OEM licenses for Windows 7 Home Basic, Home Premium, and Ultimate ended on October 31, 2014. OEM sales of PCs with Windows 7 Professional pre-installed ended on October 31, 2016. The sale of non-Professional OEM licences was stopped on October 31, 2014. Support for Windows Vista ended on April 11, 2017, requiring users to upgrade in order to continue receiving updates and support.Mainstream support for Windows 7 ended on January 13, 2015. Extended support for Windows 7 ended on January 14, 2020. In August 2019, Microsoft announced it will be offering a ‘free’ extended security updates to some business users.On September 7, 2018, Microsoft announced a paid “Extended Security Updates” service that will offer additional updates for Windows 7 Professional and Enterprise for up to three years after the end of extended support.Variants of Windows 7 for embedded systems and thin clients have different support policies: Windows Embedded Standard 7 is supported until October 2020. Windows Thin PC and Windows Embedded POSReady 7 are supported until October 2021. Windows Embedded Standard 7 and Windows Embedded POSReady 7 also get Extended Security Updates for up to three years after their end of extended support date. However, these embedded edition updates aren’t able to be downloaded on non-embedded Windows 7 editions with a simple registry hack, unlike Windows XP with its embedded editions updates.
In March 2019, Microsoft announced that it would display notifications to users informing users of the upcoming end of support, and direct users to a website urging them to purchase a Windows 10 upgrade or a new computer.In August 2019, researchers reported that “all modern versions of Microsoft Windows” may be at risk for “critical” system compromise due to design flaws of hardware device drivers from multiple providers. In the same month, computer experts reported that the BlueKeep security vulnerability, CVE-2019-0708, that potentially affects older unpatched Microsoft Windows versions via the program’s Remote Desktop Protocol, allowing for the possibility of remote code execution, may now include related flaws, collectively named DejaBlue, affecting newer Windows versions (i.e., Windows 7 and all recent versions) as well. In addition, experts reported a Microsoft security vulnerability, CVE-2019-1162, based on legacy code involving Microsoft CTF and ctfmon (ctfmon.exe), that affects all Windows versions from the older Windows XP version to the most recent Windows 10 versions; a patch to correct the flaw is currently available.In September 2019, Microsoft announced that it would provide free security updates for Windows 7 on federally-certified voting machines through the 2020 United States elections.

== System requirements ==
Additional requirements to use certain features:
Windows XP Mode (Professional, Ultimate and Enterprise): Requires an additional 1 GB of RAM and additional 15 GB of available hard disk space. The requirement for a processor capable of hardware virtualization has been lifted.
Windows Media Center (included in Home Premium, Professional, Ultimate and Enterprise), requires a TV tuner to receive and record TV.

== Extent of hardware support ==

=== Physical memory ===
The maximum amount of RAM that Windows 7 supports varies depending on the product edition and on the processor architecture, as shown in the following table.

=== Processor limits ===
Windows 7 Professional and up support up to 2 physical processors (CPU sockets),
whereas Windows 7 Starter, Home Basic, and Home Premium editions support only 1. Physical processors with either multiple cores, or hyper-threading, or both, implement more than one logical processor per physical processor. The x86 editions of Windows 7 support up to 32 logical processors; x64 editions support up to 256 (4 x 64).In January 2016, Microsoft announced that it would no longer support Windows platforms older than Windows 10 on any future Intel-compatible processor lines, citing difficulties in reliably allowing the operating system to operate on newer hardware. Microsoft stated that effective July 17, 2017, devices with Intel Skylake CPUs were only to receive the “most critical” updates for Windows 7 and 8.1, and only if they have been judged not to affect the reliability of Windows 7 on older hardware. For enterprise customers, Microsoft issued a list of Skylake-based devices “certified” for Windows 7 and 8.1 in addition to Windows 10, to assist them in migrating to newer hardware that can eventually be upgraded to 10 once they are ready to transition. Microsoft and their hardware partners provide special testing and support for these devices on 7 and 8.1 until the July 2017 date.On March 18, 2016, in response to criticism from enterprise customers, Microsoft delayed the end of support and non-critical updates for Skylake systems to July 17, 2018, but stated that they would also continue to receive security updates through the end of extended support. In August 2016, citing a “strong partnership with our OEM partners and Intel”, Microsoft retracted the decision and stated that it would continue to support Windows 7 and 8.1 on Skylake hardware through the end of their extended support lifecycle. However, the restrictions on newer CPU microarchitectures remain in force.In March 2017, a Microsoft knowledge base article was discovered which implies that devices using Intel Kaby Lake, AMD Bristol Ridge, or AMD Ryzen, would be blocked from using Windows Update entirely. In addition, official Windows 7 device drivers are not available for the Kaby Lake and Ryzen platforms.Security updates released since March 2018 contain bugs which affect processors that do not support SSE2 extensions, including all Pentium III processors. Microsoft initially stated that it would attempt to resolve the issue, and prevented installation of the affected patches on these systems. However, on June 15, 2018, Microsoft retroactively modified its support documents to remove the promise that this bug would be resolved, replacing it with a statement suggesting that users obtain a newer processor. This effectively ends future patch support for Windows 7 on these systems.

== Updates ==

=== Service Pack 1 ===
Windows 7 Service Pack 1 (SP1) was announced on March 18, 2010. A beta was released on July 12, 2010. The final version was released to the public on February 22, 2011. At the time of release, it was not made mandatory. It was available via Windows Update, direct download, or by ordering the Windows 7 SP1 DVD. The service pack is on a much smaller scale than those released for previous versions of Windows, particularly Windows Vista.Windows 7 Service Pack 1 adds support for Advanced Vector Extensions (AVX), a 256-bit instruction set extension for processors, and improves IKEv2 by adding additional identification fields such as E-mail ID to it. In addition, it adds support for Advanced Format 512e as well as additional Identity Federation Services. Windows 7 Service Pack 1 also resolves a bug related to HDMI audio and another related to printing XPS documents.In Europe, the automatic nature of the BrowserChoice.eu feature was dropped in Windows 7 Service Pack 1 in February 2011 and remained absent for 14 months despite Microsoft reporting that it was still present, subsequently described by Microsoft as a “technical error.” As a result, in March 2013, the European Commission fined Microsoft €561 million to deter companies from reneging on settlement promises.

=== Platform Update ===
The Platform Update for Windows 7 SP1 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 was released on February 26, 2013 after a pre-release version had been released on November 5, 2012. It is also included with Internet Explorer 10 for Windows 7.It includes enhancements to Direct2D, DirectWrite, Direct3D, Windows Imaging Component (WIC), Windows Advanced Rasterization Platform (WARP), Windows Animation Manager (WAM), XPS Document API, H.264 Video Decoder and JPEG XR decoder. However support for Direct3D 11.1 is limited as the update does not include DXGI/WDDM 1.2 from Windows 8, making unavailable many related APIs and significant features such as stereoscopic frame buffer, feature level 11_1 and optional features for levels 10_0, 10_1 and 11_0.

=== Disk Cleanup update ===
In October 2013, a Disk Cleanup Wizard addon was released that lets users delete outdated Windows updates on Windows 7 SP1, thus reducing the size of the WinSxS directory. This update backports some features found in Windows 8.

=== Windows Management Framework 5.0 ===
Windows Management Framework 5.0 includes updates to Windows PowerShell 5.0, Windows PowerShell Desired State Configuration (DSC), Windows Remote Management (WinRM), Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI). It was released on February 24, 2016 and was eventually superseded by Windows Management Framework 5.1.

=== Convenience rollup ===
In May 2016, Microsoft released a “Convenience rollup update for Windows 7 SP1 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1,” which contains all patches released between the release of SP1 and April 2016. The rollup is not available via Windows Update, and must be downloaded manually. This package can also be integrated into a Windows 7 installation image.Since October 2016, all security and reliability updates are cumulative. Downloading and installing updates that address individual problems is no longer possible, but the number of updates that must be downloaded to fully update the OS is significantly reduced.

=== Monthly update rollups (July 2016-January 2020) ===
In June 2018, Microsoft announced that they’ll be moving Windows 7 to a monthly update model beginning with updates released in September 2018 – two years after Microsoft switched the rest of their supported operating systems to that model.With the new update model, instead of updates being released as they became available, only two update packages were released on the second Tuesday of every month until Windows 7 reached its end of life – one package containing security and quality updates, and a smaller package that contained only the security updates. Users could choose which package they wanted to install each month. Later in the month, another package would be released which was a preview of the next month’s security and quality update rollup.
Installing the preview rollup package released for Windows 7 on March 19, 2019, or any later released rollup package, that makes Windows more reliable. This change was made so Microsoft could continue to service the operating system while avoiding “version-related issues”.Microsoft announced in July 2019 that the Microsoft Internet Games services on Windows XP and Windows Me would end on July 31, 2019 (and for Windows 7 on January 22, 2020).The last non-extended security update rollup packages were released on January 14, 2020, the last day that Windows 7 had extended support.

=== After January 14, 2020 ===
On January 14, 2020, Windows 7 support ended with Microsoft no longer providing security updates or fixes after that date, except for subscribers of the Windows 7 Extended Security Updates. However, there have been two updates that have been issued to non-ESU subscribers:

In February 2020, Microsoft released an update via Windows Update to fix a black wallpaper issue caused by the January 2020 update for Windows 7.
In June 2020, Microsoft released an update via Windows Update to roll out the new Chromium-based Microsoft Edge to Windows 7 and 8.1 machines that are not connected to Active Directory. Users, e.g. those on Active Directory, can download Edge from Microsoft’s website.In a support document, Microsoft has stated that a full-screen upgrade warning notification would be displayed on Windows 7 PCs on all editions except the Enterprise edition after January 15. The notification does not appear on machines connected to Active Directory, machines in kiosk mode, or machines subscribed for Extended Security Updates.

== Reception ==

=== Critical reception ===
Windows 7 received critical acclaim, with critics noting the increased usability and functionality when compared with its predecessor, Windows Vista. CNET gave Windows 7 Home Premium a rating of 4.5 out of 5 stars, stating that it “is more than what Vista should have been, [and] it’s where Microsoft needed to go”. PC Magazine rated it a 4 out of 5 saying that Windows 7 is a “big improvement” over Windows Vista, with fewer compatibility problems, a retooled taskbar, simpler home networking and faster start-up. Maximum PC gave Windows 7 a rating of 9 out of 10 and called Windows 7 a “massive leap forward” in usability and security, and praised the new Taskbar as “worth the price of admission alone.” PC World called Windows 7 a “worthy successor” to Windows XP and said that speed benchmarks showed Windows 7 to be slightly faster than Windows Vista. PC World also named Windows 7 one of the best products of the year.
In its review of Windows 7, Engadget said that Microsoft had taken a “strong step forward” with Windows 7 and reported that speed is one of Windows 7’s major selling points—particularly for the netbook sets. Laptop Magazine gave Windows 7 a rating of 4 out of 5 stars and said that Windows 7 makes computing more intuitive, offered better overall performance including a “modest to dramatic” increase in battery life on laptop computers. TechRadar gave Windows 7 a rating of 5 out of 5 stars, concluding that “it combines the security and architectural improvements of Windows Vista with better performance than XP can deliver on today’s hardware. No version of Windows is ever perfect, but Windows 7 really is the best release of Windows yet.” USA Today and The Telegraph also gave Windows 7 favorable reviews.
Nick Wingfield of The Wall Street Journal wrote, “Visually arresting,” and “A pleasure.” Mary Branscombe of Financial Times wrote, “A clear leap forward.” of Gizmodo wrote, “Windows 7 Kills Snow Leopard.” Don Reisinger of CNET wrote, “Delightful.” David Pogue of The New York Times wrote, “Faster.” J. Peter Bruzzese and Richi Jennings of Computerworld wrote, “Ready.”Some Windows Vista Ultimate users have expressed concerns over Windows 7 pricing and upgrade options. Windows Vista Ultimate users wanting to upgrade from Windows Vista to Windows 7 had to either pay $219.99 to upgrade to Windows 7 Ultimate or perform a clean install, which requires them to reinstall all of their programs.The changes to User Account Control on Windows 7 were criticized for being potentially insecure, as an exploit was discovered allowing untrusted software to be launched with elevated privileges by exploiting a trusted component. Peter Bright of Ars Technica argued that “the way that the Windows 7 UAC ‘improvements’ have been made completely exempts Microsoft’s developers from having to do that work themselves. With Windows 7, it’s one rule for Redmond, another one for everyone else.” Microsoft’s Windows kernel engineer Mark Russinovich acknowledged the problem, but noted that malware can also compromise a system when users agree to a prompt.

=== Sales ===
In July 2009, in only eight hours, pre-orders of Windows 7 at amazon.co.uk surpassed the demand which Windows Vista had in its first 17 weeks. It became the highest-grossing pre-order in Amazon’s history, surpassing sales of the previous record holder, the seventh Harry Potter book. After 36 hours, 64-bit versions of Windows 7 Professional and Ultimate editions sold out in Japan. Two weeks after its release its market share had surpassed that of Snow Leopard, released two months previously as the most recent update to Apple’s Mac OS X operating system. According to Net Applications, Windows 7 reached a 4% market share in less than three weeks; in comparison, it took Windows Vista seven months to reach the same mark. As of February 2014, Windows 7 had a market share of 47.49% according to Net Applications; in comparison, Windows XP had a market share of 29.23%.On March 4, 2010, Microsoft announced that it had sold more than 90 million licenses.
By April 23, 2010, more than 100 million copies were sold in six months, which made it Microsoft’s fastest-selling operating system. As of June 23, 2010, Windows 7 has sold 150 million copies which made it the fastest selling operating system in history with seven copies sold every second. Based on worldwide data taken during June 2010 from Windows Update 46% of Windows 7 PCs run the 64-bit edition of Windows 7. According to Stephen Baker of the NPD Group during April 2010 in the United States 77% of PCs sold at retail were pre-installed with the 64-bit edition of Windows 7. As of July 22, 2010, Windows 7 had sold 175 million copies. On October 21, 2010, Microsoft announced that more than 240 million copies of Windows 7 had been sold. Three months later, on January 27, 2011, Microsoft announced total sales of 300 million copies of Windows 7. On July 12, 2011, the sales figure was refined to over 400 million end-user licenses and business installations. As of July 9, 2012, over 630 million licenses have been sold; this number includes licenses sold to OEMs for new PCs.

=== Antitrust concerns ===
As with other Microsoft operating systems, Windows 7 was studied by United States federal regulators who oversee the company’s operations following the 2001 United States v. Microsoft Corp. settlement. According to status reports filed, the three-member panel began assessing prototypes of the new operating system in February 2008. Michael Gartenberg, an analyst at Jupiter Research, said, “[Microsoft’s] challenge for Windows 7 will be how can they continue to add features that consumers will want that also don’t run afoul of regulators.”In order to comply with European antitrust regulations, Microsoft proposed the use of a “ballot” screen containing download links to competing web browsers, thus removing the need for a version of Windows completely without Internet Explorer, as previously planned. Microsoft announced that it would discard the separate version for Europe and ship the standard upgrade and full packages worldwide, in response to criticism involving Windows 7 E and concerns from manufacturers about possible consumer confusion if a version of Windows 7 with Internet Explorer were shipped later, after one without Internet Explorer.As with the previous version of Windows, an N version, which does not come with Windows Media Player, has been released in Europe, but only for sale directly from Microsoft sales websites and selected others.

== See also ==
BlueKeep, a security vulnerability discovered in May 2019 that affected most Windows NT-based computers up to Windows 7

== References ==

== Further reading ==
Bott, Ed; Siechert, Carl; Stinson, Craig (2010). Windows 7 Inside Out. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press. ISBN 978-0-7356-2665-2.

== External links ==
Windows 7 Service Pack 1 (SP1)
Windows 7 SP1 update history
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alienware

alienware https://tvdseo.com/nAlienware is an American computer hardware subsidiary of Dell. Their product range is dedicated to gaming computers which can be identified by their alien-themed designs. Alienware was founded in 1996 by Nelson Gonzalez and Alex Aguila. The development of the company is also associated with Frank Azor, Arthur Lewis, Joe Balerdi, and Michael S. Dell. The company’s corporate headquarters is located in The Hammocks, Miami, Florida.

== History ==

=== Overview ===
Established in 1996 as Saikai of Miami, Inc. by Nelson Gonzalez and Alex Aguila, Alienware assembles desktops, notebooks, workstations, and PC gaming consoles. According to employees, the name “Alienware” was chosen because of the founders’ fondness for the hit television series The X-Files, which also inspired the science-fiction themed names of product lines such as Area-51, Hangar 18, and Aurora. In 1997, it changed its name to Alienware.

=== Acquisition and current status ===
Dell had considered buying the Alienware company since 2002, but did not agree to purchase the company until March 22, 2006. As a subsidiary, it retains control of its design and marketing while benefiting from Dell’s purchasing power, economies of scale, and supply chain, which lowered its operating costs.Initially, Dell maintained its competing XPS line of gaming PCs, often selling computers with similar specifications, which may have hurt Alienware’s market share within its market segment. Due to corporate restructuring in the spring of 2008, the XPS brand was scaled down, and the Desktop line was eliminated leaving only the XPS Notebooks.
Product development of gaming PCs was consolidated with Dell’s gaming division, with Alienware becoming Dell’s premier gaming brand. On June 2, 2009, The M17x was introduced as the first Alienware/Dell branded system. This launch also expanded Alienware’s global reach from 6 to 35 countries while supporting 17 different languages.

== Computer systems models (after acquisition by Dell) ==

=== Windows OS-based consoles ===
Alienware announced that it would be releasing a series of video game consoles starting in 2014, aiming to compete with the Sony PlayStation, Nintendo Wii U, and the Microsoft Xbox. The first version in this series, the Alpha, ran Windows 8.1. The operating system and ability to play PC games is what separates the Alpha from the eighth generation of video game consoles. At E3 2016, Alienware announced the second rendition of the Alpha, the Alpha R2. The R2 adds 6th generation Intel processors, a choice of either the AMD Radeon R9 M470X or Nvidia GeForce 960 graphics cards, and support for Alienware’s proprietary Graphics Amplifier. It also ships with Windows 10.

=== Graphics Amplifier ===
The Graphics Amplifier allows an Alienware laptop to run most full length (or smaller, non-hybrid) desktop GPUs.

=== Laptops ===
18 inch

M18x (Discontinued) – Introduced in 2011, it is considered a replacement for the original M17x design, but with a bigger chassis, a screen up to 18.4 inches (47 cm), dual MXM 3.0B GPU support, special keyboard macros, and up to 32 GB of DDR3-1600 MHz RAM. Shipped with Intel Sandy Bridge processors and the option of single or dual AMD Radeon 6870M/6970M/6990M Radeon HD 6000 Series GPU(s), single or dual Nvidia GeForce 500 Series GPU(s). Factory CPU overclocking was also an available option.
M18x-R2 (Discontinued) – 2012 revision of the M18x; originally shipped with Intel Sandy Bridge processors, later shipped with updated with Intel Ivy Bridge processors, single or dual Nvidia GeForce 600 Series GPU(s), single or dual AMD Radeon HD 7970M Radeon HD 7000 Series GPU(s), up to 32 GB of DDR3-1600 MHz, and optional factory overclock.
Alienware 18 (Discontinued) – 2013 refresh of the M18x; updated with Intel Haswell Processors, single or dual Nvidia GeForce 700 Series GPU(s), single or dual AMD Radeon R9 M290X GPU(s), and up to 32 GB of DDR3L-1600 MHz RAM, and 1 TB RAID 0 SSDs along with facelift with new design. Marketed as “Alienware 18” but listed in some countries as “M18XR3 Viking”.
Alienware 18 (2014) (Discontinued) – 2014 Updated version of the Alienware 18 or “M18x R3”; updated with Intel Haswell micro architecture processors, single or dual Nvidia GeForce 800 Series GPU(s), up to 32 GB of DDR3-1600 MHz, and optional overclock.
Alienware 18 (2015) (Discontinued) – 2015 version was a limited re-release of the previous Alienware 18, with updated dual Nvidia GeForce 900 Series GPUs and up to 32 GB of DDR3L-1600 MHz.17 Inch

M17x (Discontinued) – Introduced in 2009, it is the first laptop released by Alienware after the company was bought by Dell. The name and some of the design is based on the Alienware 17 inch laptop, the Alienware M17.
M17x-R2 (Discontinued) – 2010 Revision of the M17x, adding support for Intel i5 and i7 processors, dual MXM 3.0B graphic cards.
M17x-R3 (Discontinued) – 2011 Revision of the M17x, changes from aluminium chassis to a simplified plastic design, 3D Ready through a 120 Hz screen. Removes Dual-GPU capability.
M17x-R4 (Discontinued) – 2012 Revision of the M17x, updated with Windows 8, Intel Ivybridge Processors and Nvidia GeForce 600 Series or the AMD Radeon HD 7970M.
Alienware 17 (Discontinued) – 2013 refresh of the M17x, updated with Intel Haswell Processors and Nvidia GeForce 700 Series GPUs or the AMD R9 M290X with new facelift and body design. Marketed as “Alienware 17” but listed in some countries and order details as “M17XR5 Ranger”. Updated with Nvidia GeForce 800 Series in 2014
Alienware 17 R2 (Discontinued) – 2015 revision of the Alienware 17, updated with Nvidia GeForce 900 Series. Features FHD matte display or FHD touch display. A port on the rear for graphics amplifier. This model introduced BGA mounted CPU and GPU, removing the ability to replace the CPU or GPU without changing the entire motherboard.
Alienware 17 R3 (Discontinued) – 2015 refresh of the Alienware 17, Windows 10 available. Features FHD overclocking display. Ultra HD IGZO display also available, as well as a Nvidia GeForce 900 Series with 4 GB GDDR5 and 8 GB GDDR5 option.
Alienware 17 R4 – 2016 Alienware 17 (2016), Windows 10. Features 6th / 7th generation Intel CPU, Tobii eye tracking, Ultra HD display also available, as well as a Nvidia GeForce 1000 series with up to 8 GB GDDR5.
Alienware 17 R5 – 2018 Alienware 17 (2018), Windows 10. Features Tobii eye tracking, Ultra HD display also available, as well as a Nvidia GeForce 1000 series with up to 8 GB GDDR5, 8th / 9th generation of Intel processors.
Alienware M17 – 2019 Thin and light gaming laptop for 17″ category. Comes with 8th Gen Intel CPU up to Core i9-8950HK, RTX 2070 Max-Q, 16 GB of RAM and 17.3 inches (44 cm) 1080p display with optional 4K upgrade.
Alienware M17 R2 – 2019 Thin and light gaming laptop for 17″ category, replace the M17 after 6 months of announcing. Comes with 9th Gen Intel CPU up to Core i9-9980HK, up to RTX 2080 Max-Q, 16 GB of RAM and 17.3 inches (44 cm) 1080p display with optional 4K upgrade. The Alienware m17 R2 will be based on the same design language and chassis material as the beefier 17.3-inch Area-51M.
Alienware Area-51m – 2019 desktop replacement gaming laptop with a desktop CPU, up to Intel Core i9-9900K, 128 GB of upgradeable memory, upgradeable GPU (ships with GTX 1080 but will be upgraded to RTX 2080) and overclockable as well. Also features two power adapters and new Legend design language for Alienware.
Alienware M17 R3 – 2020 Thin and light gaming laptop for the 17″ category. Comes with 10th gen Intel CPU up to Core i9-10980HK, up to Nvidia GeForce RTX 2080 Super 8 GB GDDR6, 32 GB of RAM and 17.3-inch (44 cm) 3840 × 2160 60 Hz 25 ms 500 cd/m2 100% Adobe RGB color gamut display with Tobii Eye tracking technology.15 Inch

M15x (Discontinued) – Introduced in 2009.
M15x-R2 (Discontinued) – 2010 revision of the M15x, with Nvidia GeForce 200 Series and adding support for Intel i5 and i7 processors.
Alienware 15 (Discontinued) – 2015 revision of the M15x, updated with Intel Haswell Processors and Nvidia GeForce 900 Series. Features FHD matte display or UHD touch display. Features a port on the rear for graphics amplifier.
Alienware 15 R2 (Discontinued) – 2015 refresh of the Alienware 15, updated with Intel Skylake processors and using the same NVIDIA graphics chipsets. Uses same FHD and 4K UHD screens and graphics amplifier port on the rear.
Alienware 15 R3 – 2016 Alienware 15 (2016), Windows 10. 6th / 7th gen Intel CPU, 1080p standard display and Ultra HD 4K display and 120 Hz TN+WVA Anti-Glare 400 nit NVIDIA G-SYNC Enabled Display also available, as well as a Nvidia GeForce 1000 series with up to 8 GB GDDR5.
Alienware 15 R4 (Discontinued) – 2018 Alienware 15 (2018), Windows 10. Features Tobii eye tracking, Ultra HD Display also available, as well as a Nvidia GeForce 1000 series with up to 8 GB GDDR5, 8th / 9th gen Intel CPU.
Alienware m15 – Thin and light gaming laptop. 1080p standard display and Ultra HD 4K display and 144 Hz IPS 1080p display also available, as well as a Nvidia GeForce 1000 series with up to a GTX 2070 Max-Q design.
Alienware m15 R2 – Thin and light gaming laptop. 1080p standard display and 60 Hz Ultra HD 4K display, 144 Hz IPS 1080p, and 240 Hz IPS 1080p display also available, as well as a Nvidia GeForce 20 series with up to a RTX 2080 Max-Q, 9th gen Intel CPU.14 Inch

M14x (Discontinued) – Introduced in 2011 as a replacement for the M15x, with Nvidia GeForce 500 Series and support for Intel i5 and i7 processors.
M14x-R2 (Discontinued) – 2012 revision of the M14x, updated with Intel Ivy Bridge processors and Nvidia GeForce 600 Series and Blu-ray slot drive.
Alienware 14 (Discontinued) – 2013 refresh of the M14x, updated with Intel Haswell Processors and Nvidia GeForce 700 Series and Blu-ray slot drive with new facelift and body design. It also features an IPS display. Marketed as “Alienware 14” but listed in some countries and order details as “M14XR3”.13 Inch

Alienware 13 (Discontinued) – Introduced in 2014 as a replacement for the M11x, with Nvidia GeForce GTX 860M and ULV Intel Haswell and Broadwell i5 or i7 processors. Features HD or FHD matte displays or QHD touch display. Alienware’s thinnest gaming laptop to date. Updated with Nvidia GeForce GTX 960M in 2015. A port on the rear for graphics amplifier.
Alienware 13 R2 (Discontinued) – 2015 refresh of the Alienware 13 featuring ULV Intel Skylake processors. It retains the same Nvidia GeForce GTX 960M from the previous generation.
Alienware 13 R3 – Refreshed 2016 Alienware 13 featuring either a 13.3 inches (34 cm) FHD (1920 × 1080) IPS Anti-Glare 300 nit display or a 13.3 inch QHD (2560 × 1440) OLED Anti-Glare 400 cd/m2 Display with Touch Technology. It is equipped with a Nvidia GeForce 1000 series GTX 1060 with 6 GB GDDR5. This generation also saw the use of the H-series quad-core CPUs as opposed to the ULV CPUs.11.6 Inch

M11x (Discontinued) – First introduced in early 2010, it was the smallest-size gaming laptop from Alienware. It was equipped with 1 GB DDR3 RAM and a Penryn dual-core processor, with a Pentium SU4100 at the entry-level and a Core 2 Duo SU7300 at the top. Driving the 11.6 inches (29 cm) screen were two video processors, a GMA 4500MHD integrated and a discrete Nvidia GeForce GT 335M.
M11x-R2 (Discontinued) – The late 2010 revision, it used ULV Intel Arrandale Core i5 and i7 processors. The revision also added a rubberized “soft-touch” exterior to the design. The same GT 335M was used for video; however, NVIDIA’s Optimus technology had been added to automatically switch between it and the still-used GMA 4500MHD.
M11x-R3 (Discontinued) – The 2011 revision, it added support for the second generation of Intel’s Mobility series Core i3, i5, and i7 processors. It also provided a 500 GB 7200 RPM HDD. It included the Nvidia GeForce GT 540M and integrated Intel HD Graphics 3000. A second revision of the motherboard design used on the R3 series came in Q4 2011, although on a limited amount of laptops. This version used the Nvidia GeForce GT 550M.In 2012, Alienware announced that they would discontinue the M11x model due to decreasing consumer interest in small form factor gaming laptops. The company went on to offer refreshed models for the rest of their laptop range: the M14x, M17x, and M18x.

=== Desktops ===
Aurora

The Aurora R1 (Discontinued) – This model was based on the Intel’s X58 platform (LGA 1366 Socket). It shared identical hardware with the Aurora ALX R1. The Aurora R1 is equipped with 1st Gen Intel Core i7 and i7 Extreme processors. In order of model number: 920, 930, 940, 950, 960, 965, 975 (quad core), 980X, 990X (six core). Sealed liquid cooling units for the processors came factory installed. The R1 used triple channel memory and had dedicated graphics card options from AMD’s HD 5000 series line as well as Nvidia GeForce 400 Series and Nvidia GeForce 500 Series line. Power supply options included 525 W, 875 W, and 1000 W output power. Both SLI and CrossFireX were supported.
The Aurora R2 (Discontinued) – This was the second revision of the Aurora, and the first Alienware desktop to be sold in retail chains such as Best Buy. It was based on Intel’s P55 platform (LGA 1156 Socket). Processors include the Core i5 and i7 (first generation Lynnfield quad core only). In order of model number: i5-750, i5-760, i7-860, i7-870, i7-875 and i7-880. Sealed liquid cooling units for the processors came factory installed. The R2 used dual channel memory and had dedicated graphics card options including AMD Radeon HD 5000 Series, Nvidia GeForce 400 Series and Nvidia GeForce 500 Series. Power supply options were 525 W or 875 W. Both SLI and CrossFireX were supported.
The Aurora R3 (Discontinued) – This was the third revision of the Aurora. It was based on Intel’s P67 platform (LGA 1155 Socket). Processors included Core i5 and i7 processors only (second generation quad core Sandy Bridge). In order of model number: i5-2300, i5-2400, i5-2500, i5-2500K, i7-2600, i7-2600K. Sealed liquid cooling units for the processors came factory installed. The R3 used dual channel memory and had dedicated graphics card options including AMD Radeon HD 5000 Series and Radeon HD 5000 Series as well as Nvidia GeForce 400 Series and Nvidia GeForce 500 Series. Power supply options were 525 W and 875 W. Both SLI and CrossFireX were supported.
The Aurora R4 (Discontinued) – This is the fourth revision of the Aurora. It is based on Intel’s X79 platform (LGA 2011 socket). This model shares identical hardware with the Aurora ALX (R4). Processors include Core i7 processors only (third generation quad core and hexacore Sandy Bridge Extreme). In order of model number: i7-3820, i7-3930K (six core) and i7-3960X (six core). Sealed liquid cooling units for the processors came factory installed. The R4 is the first to use quad channel memory and has Dedicated graphics card options including AMD Radeon HD 6000 series and Radeon HD 7000 series as well as Nvidia GeForce 500 Series. Nvidia GeForce 600 Series were added later in the year. Power supply options were 525 W and 875 W. Both SLI and CrossFireX were supported. The optional ALX chassis offered thermal controlled venting, tool-less/wireless hard drive bays, internal theater lighting and an extra array of external LEDs. Coupled with the TactX keyboard and mouse it offered up to 25 billion lighting color combinations.
The Aurora R5 (Discontinued) – The fifth revision of the Aurora was announced on June 13, 2016 and was available to purchase June 14, 2016. The updated Aurora was given a facelift and ergonomic handle on the top of the case and is the first of its kind to offer tool-less upgrades to graphics cards, hard drives, and memory. The Aurora was being marketed as being VR ready out of the box, even so far as being HTC Vive Optimized and Oculus Certified. The base model was released with an MSRP of US$799.99 and adding all the extra hardware can cost the consumer up to US$4,189.99. The processor options are Intel based; i3-6100, i5-6400, i5-6600K, i7-6700, and i7-6700K. The Aurora R5 was released during the transitioning phase between the GeForce 900 series and GeForce 10 series graphics cards, and the list was extensive; GTX 950 with 2 GB GDDR5, GTX 960 with 2 GB GDDR5, GTX 970 with 4 GB GDDR5, GTX 980 with 4 GB GDDR5, and the GTX 980 Ti with 6 GB GDDR5, all of which could also be put in SLI. Alienware, however, would only allow one GTX 1070 with 8 GB GDDR5 or one GTX 1080 with 8 GB GDDR5X to be installed at launch. Consumers were also allowed to purchase but one GPU from AMD, the Radeon R9 370 with 4 GB GDDR5 (CrossFire R9 370 was optional). PSU choices were 460 W or 850 W, or a liquid cooled 850 W PSU. Hard drive and SSD options ranged from 1 TB and 256 GB, respectively to 2 TB and 1 TB, respectively. RAM was available at launch between 8–64 GB of DDR4 all clocked at 2133 MHz.
The Aurora R6 (Discontinued) – The sixth revision was announced on February 22, 2017. According to Windows Central, “The Aurora R6 is only a mild refresh over the previous generation R5, with the main attraction being the new 7th Generation Kaby Lake processors from Intel.” There are dozens of factory-built combinations possible. Four processors to choose from i5-7400, i5-7600k, i7-7700, i7-7700k. Video cards offered include AMD RX 460, 470, 480, Nvidia GeForce GTX 1050 Ti, 1060, 1070, 1080, 1080 Ti (11 GB), Titan X (12 GB), Dual RX 460 (Crossfire Enabled), Dual GTX 1070 (SLI Enabled), Dual GTX 1080 (SLI Enabled), Dual GTX 1080 Ti (SLI Enabled), Dual GTX Titan X (SLI Enabled). Memory options start at 8 GB and max out at 64 GB. Factory-installed storage can be a single drive (7200 RPM drive or PCIe SSD) or dual drive including both. Standard PSU or one with liquid cooling in 450 W or 850 W is offered in Aurora R6.
The Aurora R7 (Discontinued) –
The Aurora R8 –
The Aurora R9 – The Aurora R9 was first made available to purchase August 20, 2019. It comes in both Lunar Light and Dark Side of the Moon color options.
The Aurora R10 – The Aurora R10 features AMD’s Ryzen CPU’s.
The Aurora R11 – The Aurora is similar to the R10 but with Intel CPU’s. The R11 was released on May 13, 2020.Aurora ALX

ALX (R1) (Discontinued) – This model is based on the Intel’s X58 platform (LGA 1366 socket). This model shared the identical hardware with the Aurora R1. The ALX R1 is equipped with 1st generation Intel Core i7 and i7 Extreme processors. In order of model number: 920, 930, 940, 950, 960, 965, 975 (quad core), 980X, 990X (six core). Sealed liquid cooling units for the processors came factory installed. The R1 used triple channel memory and had graphics card options from AMD Radeon HD 5000 Series, Nvidia GeForce 400 Series and Nvidia GeForce 500 Series line. Power supply options included 525 W or 875 W. Power supply and motherboard supports both SLI and CrossFireX. The ALX (X58 platform) was offered from the beginning alongside the Aurora R1, R2 and R3. It offered thermal controlled venting, tool-less/wireless hard drive bays, internal theater lighting and an extra array of external LEDs. Coupled with the TactX keyboard and mouse it offered up to 25 billion lighting color combinations.Area-51

Area-51 R1 (Discontinued) – This model is based on the Intel X58 platform (LGA 1366 socket). This model shares identical hardware with the Area 51 ALX. The Area-51 R1 is equipped with 1st Gen Intel Core i7 and i7 Extreme processors. In order of model number: 920, 930, 940, 950, 960, 975 (quad core), 980X, 990X (six core). The Area 51 used triple channel memory and had Graphics Card options from AMD Radeon HD 5000 Series, Radeon HD 6000 Series as well as Nvidia GeForce 400 Series and Nvidia GeForce 500 Series. Power Supply options included 1000 W or 1100 W. Power supply and motherboard supports both SLI and CrossFireX. The Area 51 was offered from the beginning alongside the Aurora R1, R2, R3 and the Aurora ALX (R1). It offered thermal-controlled active venting, tool-less hard drive bays, internal theater lighting and an array of external LEDs. Area-51 was offered in either semi-gloss black or lunar shadow (silver) finishes, with a non-motorized front push-panel. Command Center software and AlienFX features are offered via a discrete master I/O daughterboard.
Area-51 ALX R1 (Discontinued) – Alienware’s most expensive desktop to date ($5000–$7000 US fully equipped), ALX offered every available option as the standard model (see above); ALX is distinguished from the standard model by its matte black anodized aluminium chassis, and motorized front panel powered by a dedicated ALX-specific master I/O daughterboard.
Area-51 R2 (Discontinued) – unveiled late August 2014 – available October 2014; newly redesigned Triad chassis; Intel x99 Chipset, support for socket LGA 2011-3 Intel Haswell-E processors; 2133 MHz DDR4 memory; up to 1500 W power supply; support for 3-way/4-way SLI graphics; liquid cooling and the return of Command Center 4.0 with AlienFX/overclocking features via front I/O daughterboard.
Area-51 R3 (Discontinued) –
Area-51 R4 – The fourth revision of the Area-51 was announced at E3 2017. The base model was released with an MSRP of US$1899.99 and adding all the extra hardware can cost the consumer up to US$6,659.99. The Area 51 R4 is based on the Intel X299 chipset and the processor options include Intel based; Core i7-7800X, Core i7-7820X, Core i9-7900X Core i9-7920X, Core i9-7960X and Core i9-7980XE. Memory options include 8 GB, 16 GB, 32 GB or 64 GB DDR4 2400 MHz memory or 8 GB, 16 GB or 32 GB of HyperX DDR4 2933 MHz memory (64 GB kits sold separately). The Area-51 R4 was configurable with Nvidia GeForce 10 series, AMD RX Vega series or AMD Radeon 500 series graphics cards. Video cards offered include AMD RX 580, RX Vega 64, Nvidia GeForce GTX 1050 Ti, 1060, 1070, 1080, 1080 Ti (11 GB), liquid cooled 1080 (8 GB), Dual GTX 1070 (SLI Enabled), Dual GTX 1070 Ti (SLI Enabled), Dual GTX 1080 (SLI Enabled), Dual GTX 1080 Ti (SLI Enabled), triple AMD Radeon RX 570 or RX 580. Available PSU choices were 850 W or 1500 W. Storage options ranged from a 2 TB hard drive, 128 GB M.2 SATA, or 256 GB to 1 TB M.2 PCIe SSD.Area-51 Threadripper Edition

Area-51 R4 – The fourth revision of the Area-51 was announced at E3 2017, and the first Area-51 model to be sold with AMD Ryzen Threadripper processors. The base model was released with an MSRP of US$2399.99 and adding all the extra hardware can cost the consumer up to US$5,799.99. The Area 51 R4 Threadripper Edition is based on the AMD X399 chipset and the processor options include Ryzen Threadripper 1900X, 1920X and 1950X. Memory options include 8 GB, 16 GB, 32 GB or 64 GB DDR4 2400 MHz memory or 8 GB, 16 GB, 32 GB or 64 GB of HyperX DDR4 2933 MHz memory. The Area-51 R4 was configurable with Nvidia GeForce 10 series or AMD RX 580 graphics cards, which include; GTX 1060 6 GB, GTX 1070 8 GB, GTX 1070 Ti 8 GB, GTX 1080 8 GB, GTX 1080 Ti 11 GB, or an AMD RX 580 8 GB. Available PSU choices were 850 W or 1500 W. Storage options ranged from a 2 TB hard drive, 128 GB M.2 SATA, or 256 GB to 1 TB M.2 PCIe SSD.X51

R1 (Discontinued) – This model is equipped with a choice of 2nd or 3rd Gen Intel Core processors and Nvidia GeForce 500 or 600 Series GPUs.
R2 (Discontinued) – This model is equipped with 4th Gen Intel Core processors and Nvidia GeForce 700 Series GPUs.
R3 (Discontinued) – This model is equipped with 6th Gen Intel Core processors and Nvidia GeForce 900 Series GPUs. Added port for graphics amplifier. The hard drive is 256 GB M.2 SSD 6 Gbit/s main plus 1 TB 7200 RPM storage.

=== Video game console hybrids ===
Alienware Alpha

Alienware Alpha (Discontinued) – A PC/console hybrid introduced in 2014. It contains a custom-built Nvidia GeForce GTX 860M; a Core i3, i5, or i7 Intel Processor, depending on what model is purchased, up to 8 GB of RAM; and between 500 GB and 2 TB of hard drive space.
Alienware Alpha R2 (Discontinued) – Alienware’s update to the small form factor released on June 13, 2016. It contains (depending on customer choice) a AMD Radeon R9 M470X GPU with 2 GB GDDR5 memory or an NVIDIA GeForce GTX 960 GPU with 4 GB GDDR5. The processor line chosen this rendition are 6th generation Intel processors; the i3-6100T, i5-6400T, or i7-6700T. The RAM from factory comes in either 1 stick of 8 GB or 16 GB configurations of DDR4 memory clocked at 2133 MHz, and the system comes with one SO-DIMM slot. Hard-drive options have been expanded to include a HDD, SSD, or both. The HDD comes in one size, 1 TB at 7200 RPM, whilst the SSD is available in the M.2 mini-PCIe standard ranging in sizes between 256 GB to 1 TB. The new console also has a Graphics Amplifier slot with all models except the AMD Radeon R9 M470X equipped variant. The console ships with Windows 10.

== See also ==

List of computer system manufacturers
Dell

== References ==

== External links ==
Official website
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